During this time, several of the German clergy had taken up the cause of Pope Alexander. Despite this unrest at home, Barbarossa again formed a large army and crossed the mountains into Italy. Here, he met the united forces of the Lombard League, an alliance of northern Italian cities fighting in support of the pope.
After winning several victories, Barbarossa requested that Henry the Lion join him with reinforcements. Hoping to increase his power through the possible defeat of his uncle, Henry refused to come south. On May 29, , Barbarossa and a detachment of his army were badly defeated at Legnano, with the emperor believed killed in the fighting. Recognizing Alexander as pope, his excommunication was lifted and he was reinstated into the Church.
With peace declared, the emperor and his army marched north. Arriving in Germany, Barbarossa found Henry the Lion in open rebellion of his authority.
Invading Saxony and Bavaria, Barbarossa captured Henry's lands and forced him into exile. Though Barbarossa had reconciled with the pope, he continued to take actions to strengthen his position in Italy. In , he signed a treaty with the Lombard League, separating them from the pope. While these maneuvers led to increased tension with Rome, it did not prevent Barbarossa answering the call for the Third Crusade in While the English and French kings traveled by sea to the Holy Land with their forces, Barbarossa's army was too large and was forced to march overland.
After fighting two battles, they arrived at the Saleph River in southeast Anatolia. While stories vary, it is known that Barbarossa died on June 10, , while jumping into or crossing the river.
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View Preview. Learn more Check out. Abstract It might seem curious to rank the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick I Barbarossa among the most important military leaders of his age, since many of his ventures were unsuccessful. Related Information.
Frederick refused this categorically and the Pope, confronted with this refusal, dismounted an took place on a throne. It is a version of a ducal hat and corresponds with the administrative rank of the Pope. Be the first. Finally, Frederick's marriage to Beatrice of Burgundy helped the ruler expand his control in the north p. Indeed, the Peace of Venice was also a great international congress, as testified by the large number of participants from northern Italy as well as from Germany and various other kingdoms, including Sicily and England.
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