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Invisible Women. Caroline Criado-Perez. Good Night Stories for Rebel Girls. This Is Shakespeare. Emma Smith. Michelle Obama. Zeba Talkhani. A History of Britain in 21 Women. Jenni Murray. Your review has been submitted successfully. The largest emigration flow of ethnic Turks took place during the mass exodus in with approximately The fact that there has not been much research on Bulgarian Turkish migrant women might be because of the submission and resignation culture they brought along from the communist system, as well as the misconception that the discrimination that they were faced with in Bulgaria as a minority had completely ended after migration to Turkey, and due to the illusion created by the existence of opportunities in Turkey that they had not enjoyed in Bulgaria.
E-mail: ozgekaytan gmail. This research aims at contributing to feminist citizenship research by demonstrating the gendered experiences of a group of migrant women, which are like to share significant commonalities with migrant women in similar or different settings.
The primary research technique used in this research was semi- structured in-depth interviews. Most of the time, the concept of citizenship is perceived only as political citizenship, which consists of political participation of citizens; or social citizenship, which covers economic dependence or independence of citizens Prokhovnik, , p.
Hence, the concept of citizenship is beyond the political and the social rights. As Walby , p.
Spirituality, emotions, family, kinship and sexuality are part of what constitutes citizenship Caldwell et al. Gender is relevant to citizenship, because historically women, who comprised half the population, were denied from the full and active citizenship Walby, , p. In addition to citizenship being a male-dominated notion, it is associated with the public space, which increases the gap between public and private domains, consequently rendering women invisible and subordinated in terms of being identified as figures of private sphere Roy, , p.
In the private sphere, women are exposed to double burden while working outside home; they are also largely engaged in domestic chores and care work for elderly and children. Migration has a profound effect on women's labor force participation, which is a central element of migration research Pedraza, , p. Compared to migrant men, migrant women tend to enjoy a smaller scale of job opportunities. Migrant women mostly work in domestic service, garment industry, care work and more recently work in high-skilled occupations such as nursing; sometimes women can find jobs from hard labor, such as construction work, but they are few and mostly temporary Pedraza, , p.
Immigration is a contentious concept when considered in relation to citizenship, as the statuses and the life conditions of immigrants have often been problematic. It reshapes and reconstitutes how women and men should be; gender is compromised with migration Duran, , p. According to Pettman , p. Bulgarian Turkish immigrant women in Turkey The migration stories of women reveal that they had very difficult conditions in the first stages of the immigration, as well as in the following years of adaptation to a new country. Immigrant women remember the migration process with all details.
The social and political environment in Bulgaria in was very problematic for Turks; as the interviewee stated that there were raids into houses to change the names of Turks, while people hid and run away, without coming home for several days. Turkish women in Bulgaria were afraid to speak Turkish in their workplaces due to the restrictions of the Bulgarian state.
Read Gendered Citizenship: Historical and Conceptual Explorations book reviews & author details and more at uzafifirived.tk Free delivery on qualified orders. Adopting a historical conceptual approach, this book examines the gendering of citizenship. It argues that through successive historical periods, `becoming a.
The Bulgarian Turkish immigrant women stated that they always had fear in their hearts in Bulgaria because of the forceful name changes and restrictions on speaking their mother tongue. All of the women stressed that they began everything from scratch in a new country. The first years of the immigration passed with difficulties, but all migrant women found a way to struggle.
Matthew J. American Indian Cultural Support. Teaching human rights in Mexico: A case study of educators' professional knowledge and practices. Why so many Somali-Canadians who go west end up dead. In addition blacks are subject to greater degrees of racial profiling than other groups.
The first impressions of immigrant women about Turkey seem negative due to the prejudices against them and conservative gender norms and practices, which are especially imposed on women. Ethnicity-based identity problems Bulgarian Turkish minority experienced in Bulgaria have also continued in Turkey.
Migrated in with her husband. Nevertheless, most of the immigrant women interviewed with expressed that they did not feel discriminated in Turkey. The forced migration has some positive consequences for immigrant women, for which they all want to stay in Turkey. Some women declared that they never wanted to return to Bulgaria, despite the fact that there are negative aspects of Turkey as well.
Living in big cities in Turkey, and earning higher wages compared to Bulgaria are important reasons why immigrant women prefer living in Turkey. Immigrant women asserted that they could live freely in Turkey without any restrictions about speaking their mother tongue and practicing their religion. Almost all women highlighted that they were very happy to work and be able to get retirement in Turkey, as there is currently a high level of unemployment in Bulgaria.
However, these positive sides of the migration came at the expense of increased domestic gender roles. Bulgarian Turkish immigrant women have been exposed to marginalization and alienation in Turkey, initially because of their culture of work. Immigrant women argued that they received strong criticism about their work outside home.
They were very narrow-minded; but now local women have begun working, after seeing it from us. One interviewee asserted that people rumor about a man if he takes his child to park, so she and her husband go to park together with their children in Turkey. This reflected the prevailing dominance of the male breadwinner idea in the Turkish society.
Immigrant women also suffered from the absence of certain social services in Turkey that were provided by the state in Bulgaria, such as childcare. Some women had to quit their jobs in order to look after their children, as there was nobody else to do it. Some of them sent their children to Bulgaria, so that their relatives can look after the children for some time. Immigrant women fled from an assimilation campaign while immigrating to Turkey; although they knew that the social and economic system is different in Turkey, they did not expect as much Nimet 44 , high school graduate, subcontracted worker in a hospital in Turkey.
The new social and economic system, combined with patriarchy in Turkey, resulted in negative conditions for immigrant women. Discussion The Bulgarian Turkish immigrants who fled to Turkey in were granted full Turkish citizenship; they enjoyed equal legal rights with Turkish citizens. In the eyes of the Turkish society, these immigrants had many advantages. They were not outsiders; on the contrary, they were welcomed by the Turkish government, and their settlement and employment were facilitated.
Immigrant women have been stuck visibly in private sphere in Turkey. Many immigrant women had to quit their jobs later to take care of their children, since there is not adequate and financially accessible state-provided childcare service in Turkey. Most of the interviewees emphasized that they could not go out freely at nights in Turkey, which implies a limited presence in the urban space.
Moreover, immigrant women had to change some of their domestic habits in Turkey because of the social oppression coming from the local women. More traditional and religious gender norms are reconstructed for the immigrant women in Turkey. In Turkey, immigrant women are mostly employed in jobs that reproduce gender roles, such as children and elderly care work, domestic work, and nursery. This and all other circumstances regarding gendered work patterns in the private and public spheres effectively excluded immigrant women from equal and full citizenship.