Dragon and his angels fought back, but they were defeated, and there was no longer any place for them in Heaven. Dragon the Great was thrown down, that ancient serpent who is called Devil and Satan, the one deceiving the whole inhabited World - he was thrown down to earth and his angels were thrown down with him. In Revelation , Satan is bound with a chain and hurled into the Abyss ,  where he is imprisoned for one thousand years.
Despite the fact that the Book of Genesis never mentions Satan,  Christians have traditionally interpreted the serpent in the Garden of Eden as Satan due to Revelation , which calls Satan "that ancient serpent". The name Heylel , meaning "morning star" or, in Latin, Lucifer , [c] was a name for Attar , the god of the planet Venus in Canaanite mythology ,   who attempted to scale the walls of the heavenly city,   but was vanquished by the god of the sun.
In his apologetic treatise Contra Celsum , however, Origen changed his interpretations of Isaiah and Ezekiel , now interpreting both of them as referring to Satan. According to the ransom theory of atonement , which was popular among early Christian theologians,   Satan gained power over humanity through Adam and Eve 's sin   and Christ's death on the cross was a ransom to Satan in exchange for humanity's liberation.
Most early Christians firmly believed that Satan and his demons had the power to possess humans  and exorcisms were widely practiced by Jews, Christians, and pagans alike. Satan had minimal role in medieval Christian theology ,  but he frequently appeared as a recurring comedic stock character in late medieval mystery plays , in which he was portrayed as a comic relief figure who "frolicked, fell, and farted in the background". The Canon Episcopi , written in the eleventh century AD, condemns belief in witchcraft as heretical,  but also documents that many people at the time apparently believed in it.
During the Early Modern Period , Christians gradually began to regard Satan as increasingly powerful  and the fear of Satan's power became a dominant aspect of the worldview of Christians across Europe. In the late fifteenth century, a series of witchcraft panics erupted in France and Germany. By the early s, skeptics in Europe, including the English author Reginald Scot and the Anglican bishop John Bancroft , had begun to criticize the belief that demons still had the power to possess people. Mormonism developed its own views on Satan. According to the Book of Moses , the Devil offered to be the redeemer of mankind for the sake of his own glory.
Conversely, Jesus offered to be the redeemer of mankind so that his father's will would be done. After his offer was rejected, Satan became rebellious and was subsequently cast out of heaven. It was through this pact that Cain became a Master Mahan. Douglas Davies asserts that this text "reflects" the temptation of Jesus in the Bible. Belief in Satan and demonic possession remains strong among Christians in the United States    and Latin America.
Scott Poole, author of Satan in America: The Devil We Know , has opined that "In the United States over the last forty to fifty years, a composite image of Satan has emerged that borrows from both popular culture and theological sources" and that most American Christians do not "separate what they know [about Satan] from the movies from what they know from various ecclesiastical and theological traditions. Bernard McGinn describes multiple traditions detailing the relationship between the Antichrist and Satan. Seven suras in the Quran describe how God ordered all the angels and Iblis to bow before the newly-created Adam.
In the Quran, Satan is apparently an angel,  but, in , he is described as "from the jinns". Ibn Abbas asserts that the word jinn could be applied to earthly jinn, but also to "fiery angels" like Satan.
Hasan of Basra , an eminent Muslim theologian who lived in the seventh century AD, was quoted as saying: "Iblis was not an angel even for the time of an eye wink. He is the origin of Jinn as Adam is of Mankind. When he was expelled from Paradise, Satan blamed humanity for his punishment. The Muslim historian Al-Tabari , who died in around AD,  writes that, before Adam was created, earthly jinn made of smokeless fire roamed the earth and spread corruption.
During the first two centuries of Islam, Muslims almost unanimously accepted the traditional story known as the Satanic Verses as true. The hadith teach that newborn babies cry because Satan touches them while they are being born, and that this touch causes people to have an aptitude for sin. Muslim tradition preserves a number of stories involving dialogues between Jesus and Iblis,  all of which are intended to demonstrate Jesus's virtue and Satan's depravity.
Women are the ropes of Satan. Wine is the key to every evil. The ashes I put on the faces of orphans, so that people come to dislike them. According to Sufi mysticism, Iblis refused to bow to Adam because he was fully devoted to God alone and refused to bow to anyone else. Muslims believe that Satan is also the cause of deceptions originating from the mind and desires for evil.
He is regarded as a cosmic force for separation, despair and spiritual envelopment. Muslims do distinguish between the satanic temptations and the murmurings of the bodily lower self Nafs. The lower self commands the person to do a specific task or to fulfill a specific desire; whereas the inspirations of Satan tempt the person to do evil in general and, after a person successfully resists his first suggestion, Satan returns with new ones. Theistic Satanism, commonly referred to as "devil worship",  views Satan as a deity , whom individuals may supplicate to. Atheistic Satanism, as practiced by the Satanic Temple and by followers of LaVeyan Satanism , holds that Satan does not exist as a literal anthropomorphic entity, but rather as a symbol of a cosmos which Satanists perceive to be permeated and motivated by a force that has been given many names by humans over the course of time.
In this religion, "Satan" is not viewed or depicted as a hubristic, irrational, and fraudulent creature, but rather is revered with Prometheus -like attributes, symbolizing liberty and individual empowerment. To adherents, he also serves as a conceptual framework and an external metaphorical projection of the Satanist's highest personal potential. Gilmore , further expounds that " Satan is a symbol of Man living as his prideful, carnal nature dictates. The reality behind Satan is simply the dark evolutionary force of entropy that permeates all of nature and provides the drive for survival and propagation inherent in all living things.
Satan is not a conscious entity to be worshiped, rather a reservoir of power inside each human to be tapped at will". According to Peter H. Gilmore, "The Church of Satan has chosen Satan as its primary symbol because in Hebrew it means adversary, opposer, one to accuse or question. We see ourselves as being these Satans; the adversaries, opposers and accusers of all spiritual belief systems that would try to hamper enjoyment of our life as a human being. Post-LaVeyan Satanists, like the adherents of The Satanic Temple , argue that the human animal has a natural altruistic and communal tendency, and frame Satan as a figure of struggle against injustice and activism.
They also believe in bodily autonomy, that personal beliefs should conform to science and inspire nobility, and that people should atone for their mistakes. The main deity in the tentatively Indo-European pantheon of the Yazidis , Melek Taus , is similar to the devil in Christian and Islamic traditions, as he refused to bow down before humanity. In fact, there is no entity in Yazidism which represents evil in opposition to God; such dualism is rejected by Yazidis. In the Middle Ages , the Cathars , practitioners of a dualistic religion, were accused of worshipping Satan by the Catholic Church.
Pope Gregory IX stated in his work Vox in Rama that the Cathars believed that God had erred in casting Lucifer out of heaven and that Lucifer would return to reward his faithful. On the other hand, according to Catharism, the creator-god of the material world worshipped by the Catholic Church is actually Satan. Wicca is a modern, syncretic Neopagan religion,  whose practitioners many Christians have incorrectly assumed to worship Satan.
Much modern folklore about Satanism does not originate from the actual beliefs or practices of theistic or atheistic Satanists, but rather from a mixture of medieval Christian folk beliefs, political or sociological conspiracy theories, and contemporary urban legends. Satan appears in several stories from The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer ,  including " The Summoner's Prologue ", in which a friar arrives in Hell and sees no other friars,  but is told there are millions. John Milton 's epic poem Paradise Lost features Satan as its main protagonist. William Blake regarded Satan as a model of rebellion against unjust authority  and features him in many of his poems and illustrations,  including his book The Marriage of Heaven and Hell ,  in which Satan is celebrated as the ultimate rebel, the incarnation of human emotion and the epitome of freedom from all forms of reason and orthodoxy.
Satan's appearance is never described in the Bible or any early Christian writings,   though Paul the Apostle does write that "Satan disguises himself as an angel of light" 2 Corinthians The mosaic "Christ the Good Sheppard" features a blue angel which appears to the left hand side of Jesus behind three goats. Medieval Christians were known to adapt previously existing pagan iconography to suit depictions of Christian figures.
Italian frescoes from the late Middle Ages onward frequently show Satan chained in Hell, feeding on the bodies of the perpetually damned. Detail of Satan from The Last Judgement c. Satan Summoning his Legions by Thomas Lawrence. Satan and Death with Sin Intervening c. Satan Watching the Caresses of Adam and Eve c.
Satan Arousing the Rebel Angels c. Job's Evil Dreams by William Blake. Depiction of Satan c. Jesus drives Satan right away in this woodcut by von Carolsfeld. Satan afflicting Job from the Nuremberg Chronicle. Alex Sanders , a former black magician, served as a consultant on the film to ensure that the rituals portrayed in it were depicted accurately.
The film version of Ira Levin 's Rosemary's Baby established made Satanic themes a staple of mainstream horror fiction. References to Satan in music can be dated back to the Middle Ages. During the fifth century, a musical interval called the tritone became known as "the devil in Music" and was banned by the Catholic Church. Tartini claimed that the sonata was a lesser imitation of what the Devil had played in his dream. In the early s, jazz and blues became known as the "Devil's Music" as they were considered "dangerous and unholy".
Later, Robert Johnson claimed that he had sold his soul in return for becoming a great blues guitarist. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the specific figure in the Abrahamic religions that seduces humans into sin. For personifications of evil in various cultures and religious traditions around the world, see Devil. For other uses, see Satan disambiguation. Figure in Abrahamic religions. Main article: Devil in Christianity. Sixteenth-century illustration by Simon Bening showing Satan approaching Jesus with a stone. The Temptation of Christ by Ary Scheffer.
Painting from c. During the early modern period , exorcisms were seen as displays of God's power over Satan. Main article: Iblis. See also: Azazil. Main article: Satanism. See also: Devil in popular culture. Play media. Vetus Testamentum. Historically the first point of contact that we can determine is when the Achaemenian Cyrus conquered Babylon.. Lanham, Md.
Enochic Judaism. The Oxford dictionary of the Jewish religion 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press. Some of our Author's Views: Demonology, by R. On this tradition, see A.
Ivry, Elliot R. Philadelphia, Pa. Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved 14 March There is no difference between Jews and Gentiles when it comes to the sinfulness of the human heart, which is the first and primary reason for Gospel resistance. We must also recognize the place of satanic deception in Gospel resistance. All too often, we give mere lip service to this spiritual reality. We fail to include a proper awareness of spiritual power in our evangelistic strategy.
I believe that the Jewish people are the particular target of satanic attack. Ever since Abram left Ur of the Chaldees, his descendants, the Jews, have been a people of destiny. And that destiny has been wrapped up with the supernatural. God elected to convey His truth to the world through the Jews. The very integrity of God, the trustworthiness of the Bible, and the future promises concerning world redemption will be demonstrated, not only through the survival of the Jewish people but through their salvation in Christ.
He hates them with a perfect hatred. Their total destruction is his goal. He is the author of the spirit of anti-Semitism. There is no other way to explain the venomous hostility that has been directed against the Jews by so many people and so many countries for so many years. It takes the power of the Holy Spirit to come against the power of the unholy spirit. There is a third spiritual factor that we must confess is a mystery, though the Scriptures speak openly of it.
There exists a special blindness, unique to the Jewish people. But whenever anyone turns to the Lord, the veil is taken away. This hardening of the Jews remains a mystery, but must be factored into our understanding of Jewish resistance to the gospel. Some missiologists and pastors have concluded that Jewish evangelism is not a primary concern at this time.
I believe that God will evangelize them when He is ready. In the meantime, God has poured out His grace, His spirit upon the gentiles and thus I like to fish where the fish are biting. I really feel that for the most part [Jewish evangelism] is a waste of church finances that can be better used to evangelize the gentiles at this time.
Paul describes the hardening as partial and temporary. Paul recognized that God had preserved a remnant according to the election of grace. Romans This understanding of the continuing remnant must shape our thinking with regard to Jewish evangelism, especially in the face of Jewish resistance to the gospel. If our goal were to see the majority of Jews accept Christ now, then I would agree with Chuck Smith that the church had better concentrate on evangelizing gentiles. But we must remember that humanity in general will not accept the gospel en masse, small is the gate and narrow the road that leads to life, and only a few find it.
Matthew Unless we apply this biblical understanding to our theories of gospel resistance, we will inevitably wring our hands and despair of the task. Instead, we can rejoice with the angels that God is indeed saving some.
We certainly see this in Jewish evangelism today. Though the level of official resistance is greater than ever and though the strategies to prevent a gospel witness among the Jewish people abound, we are still seeing Jewish people receive the gospel. In fact, more Jews today coming to faith in Christ than at any time since perhaps the first century when those first Jews for Jesus, Peter, James and John were preaching the gospel.
Our understanding of Jewish resistance to the gospel requires an awareness of spiritual factors but there are other factors to consider. Jewish history is replete with persecution in the name of Christ. It has been said that the sad saga of Jewish-Christian relations could be written in blood and punctuated with violence.
It is not the purpose of this paper to catalog this history but certainly a few examples are in order. Czar Nicholas I ordered conscription in the Russian army: 25 years for all boys, unless they happened to be Jews. Jews were to serve for 31 years for all Jews. Those extra six years were designed to convert Jewish boys to Russian Orthodoxy.
The Crusades, although not aimed specifically at Jews, provide another poignant example of persecution in the name of Christ. The Crusaders, upon reaching the city of Jerusalem, found that the Moslem invaders had passed on through and all that was left were a defenseless group of Orthodox Jews. They rounded up those Jews into the great synagogue and then burned it to the ground.
Yet, for Jewish people, these facts are huge on the horizon of Jewish-Christian relations. These and so many other historical facts that show Jews suffering at the hand of Christians are the cornerstone upon which Jewish historical identity is based. Jewish people do not distinguish between those who call themselves Christians and those who actually practice the Christian faith.
Most Jews have concluded that Jewish survival is based upon their own historic resistance to the Christian flood. Christian mission is seen as synonymous with persecution and anti- Semitism. They are Christians. The third foundational factor in Jewish resistance to the gospel is social. Issues of individual and group identity have a profound bearing on Jewish resistance to the gospel. This is where the more recent theories of resistance and receptivity are most helpful.
Jewish people are rooted and grounded in the biblical narrative, yet the historical split between synagogue and church has led to a highly developed social identity within the Jewish community. The leaders of this community have designed this identity to provide plenty of cultural distance between the Christian church and the Jewish community.
Part of that loyalty is defined as not believing in Jesus. Jewishness is defined broadly within the Jewish community.
It is a fact of birth, a product of social development, education and identification, and lastly, a matter of religious affiliation. Yet when it comes to the specifics of Jewish identity, even the leaders of the community disagree. In fact, the question of who is a Jew is one of the most hotly contested issues in the State of Israel today. Israel is a largely secularized state, but the religious minority has a very prominent voice.
The majority of Jews in Israel and elsewhere minimize the religious aspect of identity. That is Jewish identity broadly defined. But there is a more narrow definition of Jewish identity that is widely accepted, a definition that gives the appearance of religious or spiritual content.
That definition amounts to identity by negation. Because Jewish identity comes in the form of a negation which precludes faith in Christ, resistance to the gospel is a given. Christians need to know that Jewish people do not see Jewish believers in Jesus as those who have followed their convictions.
They see Jewish believers in Jesus as traitors to themselves, their family, their people…they see them as traitors to their very survival. And survival is paramount in the Jewish community. The facts of Jewish history have combined with the forces of secularization to transform Judaism into a religion of survival. Preservation of Jewish identity has become the highest and the only non-negotiable religious ideal. Couple that fact with the conviction that Jews cannot believe in Jesus and remain Jewish, and the syllogism leads to the highest possible form of gospel resistance in the social realm.
For Jews, the invitation to Christ appears to come, not from merely an alien culture, but from a culture that is perceived as hostile. Moreover, Jewish identity and faith in Jesus are considered mutually exclusive by the Jewish establishment. That means that for a Jew to accept Christ he or she must violate that part of his or her conscience that has always accepted the equation that becoming a Christian equals betraying the Jewish people. Jewish community leaders recount with great passion the historical and social factors that help maintain the collective conscience—and the commitment to identity by negation as described above.
This leads to our second set of factors in Jewish resistance to the gospel: strategic factors. These factors are highly developed, well organized and intended to produce a negative commitment to the person of Christ. Many Christians assume that Judaism today is much like it was in the time of Jesus, or that Christianity and Judaism are alike except for faith in Jesus. This is simply untrue. Contemporary Judaism is thoroughly polemical in its construct—and it was not constructed in a vacuum.
It developed within the context of a particular challenge: that of an emerging sect of Jews whose hearts were committed to Jesus. With the destruction of the 2nd Temple by the Romans in 70 AD, the success of the Jewish Christian sect in winning converts grew at what was, for the rabbinical authorities, an alarming rate.
Some scholars have estimated that by the turn of the 1st century, as many as one third of the Jews in Palestine had professed faith in Christ. Jewish authorities felt they had to do something to staunch the flow of Jews who were coming to Christ. Their efforts to deal with this have been welldocumented by Jacob Jocz, James Parks and others. The differences in theology are real enough, but they are rendered even more intense by false impressions that many Jewish people have of Christian beliefs and or practices. Following are three examples of such theological shifts in Judaism, with attendant misunderstandings that many Jews have regarding Christian theology.
Sin: Rabbis have embraced an ethical dualism, and have established the belief that each soul is endowed with a good inclination yetzer ha tov and a bad inclination yetzer ha ra. Each person is responsible to follow the good inclination and reject the bad. While this emphasis on responsibility and the continual choice to do good or evil parallels Christianity to some extent, the Jewish religion veers away in its teaching that human beings are born morally neutral. In contrast to the doctrine of original sin, Judaism recognizes no human condition which would prevent people from doing good and rejecting evil.
Thou preservest it within me, and Thou wilt take it from me, but wilt restore unto me hereafter. While most Jews will admit that they have made mistakes, few would identify themselves as sinners. Sinners are those who have stolen, murdered, sold drugs, etc. Further, most Jewish people do not understand what Christians mean by original sin. They meaning the Christians have little respect for humanity; they teach that all people are evil from birth and punished for something that others did.
Salvation: The Exodus from Egypt, or deliverance from national calamity, is the paradigm of Salvation in the Old Testament. Salvation is viewed as a corporate, not personal, concern. In addition, there is the concept of tikkun olam , whereby the Jewish people see themselves in partnership with God to create a better world. Many Jews do not believe in an afterlife, or assume that if there is one, they will naturally have a place in heaven.
Christianity is viewed by many as a religion that is only concerned with what happens to people after they die.
Savior: Judaism has been forced to evolve since the destruction of the second Temple. Prayer, repentance and good deeds have been substituted for the Temple sacrifices. Whereas Judaism was once a redemptive religion, it is now a moralistic religion. Rabbis rarely speak of atonement for sin, or how to have a relationship with God.
The idea that Israel needs a savior to die for their sins is no longer part of mainstream Jewish thinking. Even if there was to be a savior, we would not worship him—that is idolatry. These are just a few examples of many ideas which developed in opposition to Christian teaching and ultimately Old Testament doctrine as well. Many Jewish leaders view education as the answer to most ills within the Jewish community.
The answer to this apparent defect is more rigorous education, which actually amounts to indoctrination. That indoctrination takes two forms. First, the development and study of literature designed to refute the New Testament. While local rabbis are entrusted with the responsibility to provide such education, their efforts are bolstered by national and international organizations. Groups like the Jewish Community Relations Council Task Force on Missionaries and Cults, Jews For Judaism and a host of other groups exist solely for the purpose of preventing the gospel message from penetrating the Jewish community.
This kind of organized opposition is not a recent phenomenon. The history of Jewish polemics and refutation literature is as old as the Talmud itself. In evaluating this disputation literature, it is important to realize that its purpose is not to engage Christian scholars in debate, or to persuade them to abandon Christianity.
Refutation literature is a purely defensive measure, designed to discourage Jewish people from considering the claims of Christ. In some cases, authors make honest attempts to weigh evidence and present a credible argument against the gospel. More often than not, this material is characterized by such logical fallacies as straw men, question begging and misrepresentation of the facts. The first line of attack is to contradict the New Testament claims that Jesus fulfilled the Hebrew Scriptures.
The predicted child is said to be the son of the prophet Isaiah. Attempts to identify Jesus as the suffering servant of Isaiah 53 are rejected on the basis that they do not depict a person at all, but rather the nation of Israel. Since Israel is elsewhere identified as the servant, it is presumed that Isaiah is again speaking of Israel in Isaiah A second attack on the New Testament borrows heavily from the form criticism of liberal Protestantism.
A further aspect of the indoctrination of gospel resistance is the notion that Jewish identity—by definition and based on historical perspective—precludes Jesus as an option for Jews. This mentality allows the strategic use of shame to prevent Jewish people from considering ideas which they perceive as the special property of those who have persecuted them. In fact, Jewish people have suffered enormously at the hands of so called Christians. Nevertheless, little effort is made in the Jewish community to present other relevant facts.
Instead there has been a systematic spin on history to create the widest chasm possible between Jews and Christians. Martin Luther illustrates the point. Nor is it embraced by Christians today. Yet it is deemed all that is necessary or relevant for a Jewish understanding of Luther. And for many, it is regarded as proof that Christians and Christianity are hateful. Another interesting distortion of history in Jewish education is the notion that the Inquisition was launched by Catholics seeking to persecute Jews.
In reality, the Inquisition was a case of Christians persecuting other Christians. The Holocaust has dominated the Jewish perspective of history to the point where some within the Jewish community are beginning to call for balance.
Scant attention is paid to those valiant Christians who resisted the Nazis. Well developed and heavily funded Holocaust studies that are an integral part of Jewish education neglect names like Bonhoeffer and Ten Boom, and the Barman declaration is virtually unheard of.
This imbalanced view of history is designed to place any consideration of Christianity on a par with the highest form of disloyalty and betrayal of the Jewish people. Honest intellectual inquiry about Christianity is impossible from within the Jewish community, since the very question brings with it the specter of the highest form of community censure. Further, anti-Jewish attitudes of the past are often imputed to present day Christians. The idea that Christians hope to destroy the Jewish people by converting them to Christianity is common.
Many Christians are so horrified to learn this that they are too intimidated to tell Jewish friends about Jesus. Thus distorted education regarding Christians and Christianity has its desired effect. Jewish people learn prejudices regarding Christianity, and many Christians, wishing to prove those prejudices untrue, are unwilling to say anything that might be taken amiss by Jewish friends or acquaintances. It is difficult to level an accusation of prejudice at the Jewish people, who have been the objects of so much prejudice. Nevertheless, the prejudice people experience does not necessarily keep them from prejudging others.
In fact, prejudice tends to be a viscous cycle, as people form judgments and poorly informed opinions of those whom they feel have judged them.
This leads to the third strategic response within the Jewish community: the estrangement of vocal Christians—and particularly of Jews who believe in Jesus—from the Jewish community. Jews who profess faith in Christ often meet with tremendous outrage and hostility from other Jews. Jewish community leaders do everything possible to encourage this outrage.
In the past Jews who professed faith in Christ were publicly excommunicated. With the secularization of the Jewish community, this occurs infrequently. Other methods of censure have been developed. Jewish Christians are labeled meshummad which means a destroyer. It is possible to be a bad Jew, but no Jew can become a non-Jew. Jewish Christians are refused access to any formal Jewish community assistance and they are denied the right to be buried in a Jewish cemetery. Further, efforts to create as much cultural distance as possible between the Jewish and Christian communities are made by blurring the lines between social, political and theological differences between the two.
Jewish people tend to be more liberal than most Christians when it comes to politics and social mores. Jewish leaders make the most of those differences to present Christianity in as unappealing and alien light as possible to Jewish people. Unfortunately, many Christians contribute to this impression without realizing that using religious clout to tout a particular party line has convinced many Jews that a vote for Jesus is a vote for a political party they may not be inclined to endorse.